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    Glossary

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    A Baker's Dozen:

    The “baker’s dozen” refers to providing 13 baked items for the price of 12 and originated as a way to avoid shortchanging the customer. Bakers who shorted (cheated) customers could be punished severely—such as losing a hand to an axe! This allowed that one of the 13 could be lost, eaten, burnt, or ruined in some way, leaving the baker with the original legal dozen. The practice can be seen in the Baker Guild codes of the Worshipful Company of Bakers in London, 12th century.
    

    Absorption:

    A characteristic of flour to take up and retain (hold) water or liquids. It is determined by measuring the amount of liquid needed to make dough of the desired consistency. It is  expressed in a percentage (lbs./liters of water needed per pound/kilo of flour).
    

    All-purpose flour

    Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. Used in homes for some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Both may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron.
    

    Amaranth flour

    Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads. 
    

    Apron

    A cloth or plastic cover garment bakers wear for both food sanitation and to protect clothing.
    

    Artificial Sweetener

    Non-nutritive (contain no nutrients), high-intensity sugar substitutes.
    

    Artisan

    Skilled craftsman or trade; baker who produces bread or bakery goods using production methods that are part hand-made. Often refers to European crusty breads or low-ratio cakes and desserts.