Very hard water and soft water create problems for baked goods. Tap water of medium hardness and without noticeable chlorination or other off odors is suitable. Bottled water may be used in very hard water regions.
To use a scale to determine the weight of ingredients, dough pieces, the baked product or net weight.
Flour milled from soft (lower protein) red or white wheat for cakes, pastries, waffles, and other products, or hard white or red wheat for pizza crust, yeast breads, bagels, and
some rolls or hearth breads. High-protein durum wheat will be used for flour or semolina for some specialty breads, but is primarily a pasta wheat.
Beating a food lightly and rapidly with a mixer, whisk or beater to incorporate air and increase volume.
To beat ingredients together, using a wire whip or whisk, until well blended.
A mixture of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin, and vanilla. If cocoa butter is not mentioned, the product is confectionary or summer coating, not white chocolate. It is not a true chocolate due to no chocolate liquor present. Chips or pieces and coating chunks are popular home baking ingredients.
Whole grain Using whole kernel or ground whole kernels of a grain (barley, corn, oats, wheat, soy, rye) in a food at 51% or more of the flour weight. There must be more flour than sugar and fat for the food to be a“grain food” product. 16 grams of whole grain flour or meal per serving is 1/3 of the daily need for whole grain in a diet.
Whole wheat flour:
Flour produced from the whole kernel of wheat. Also called graham flour. It is usually produced in flour mills but may be ground in a mill using a stone grinding process.