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    (Sodium Chloride – NaCl) can be produced three ways: Open-air evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds (sea salt). By mining of rock salt deposits. By boiling and evaporation of
    higher purity brine. Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse grades are available for use as toppings on soft pretzels and other specialty breads. 


     The level of saltiness in a food, water or product.

    Salt substitute:

    Usually potassium chloride in granular form, intended for lowering sodium intake; generally bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking. 


    Free from dirt or germs that could cause illness or disease.

    Saturated fats:

    Fats that are solid enough at room temperature (70° F.) to hold their shape; usually animal fats, though palm or coconut oil are also included.


    Cooking or browning food in a small amount of hot oil or fat until softened and the flavors are released. 


    (n.) Full of flavor; (v.) take time to enjoy the full flavor of food.


    To bring liquids to a temperature just below boiling so that tiny bubbles form at the edge of the pan or cup to stop enzymatic activity that retards gluten development.


    (n.) Kitchen device to accurately record the weight of an ingredient or food; bakers use for consistent results; scales may be balance, spring or electronic: (v) To weigh pieces of dough for equal portioning before shaping or batter before distributing in pans.


    Dividing batter or dough by weight for the most accurate portioning into pans or pieces. Equal division of dough or batter between pans is very important for even baking and
    browning. Note: Scaling should be done quickly to avoid loss of leavening or over-aging of dough.


    A Scottish biscuit-like bread made with oats, flour, butter and leavened with baking powder; savory or sweet and frequently served with breakfast or tea.


     To make small shallow cuts on the surface of a food.

    Scratch baking:

    Baking method that begins with measuring basic ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and leavening. It requires a recipe rather than convenience products, like mixes.


    Pinching the edges of dough that are brought together; securing or closing two sides of dough, packaging or product edges.

    Sea salt:

    Salt captured by the evaporation of sea water; the type used down through the ages.


    To add herbs, spices, citrus zest, extracts or other ingredients to food for flavoring.

    Seasoned salt:

    Regular salt combined with a flavoring (Ex: onion, garlic, celery).


    Refers to melting chocolate that becomes a thick, lumpy mass due to even a small amount of steam or moisture getting into the melting chocolate. Chocolate may be unseized
    (although texture is still affected) by stirring in 1 tablespoon or less of vegetable oil, cocoa butter or clarified butter per 6 oz. of chocolate until smooth.

    Self-rising flour:

    One of the first “convenience mixes,” self-rising flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and salt. When self-rising flour is used in a standard flour recipe, the baking powder and salt are then omitted. 

    Semi-sweet chocolate:

    Baking chocolate that contains between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeably in some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not interchangeable with milk chocolate.

    Semolina flour:

    Flour produced by further grinding semolina (granules) made from durum wheat. Specialty breads sometimes call for part semolina or semolina flour. Also called pasta flour. 


     To remove the yolk from the white of the egg.


    A specific amount of food adequate for nutrition management and health

    Shaping or moulding:

    Follow recipe directions for how to divide and shape dough (sheet dough, sticks, loaves, twist, braid, pretzel, smooth ball, etc.).

    Sheet cake:

    A type of flat cake baked in a sheet pan, frosted and cut-into squares or triangles


    (n.) The outer protection of an egg (v.) remove the egg from the shell (“shell the egg”).


    A solid fat made by hydrogenating vegetable oils –a chemical process of completing hydrogen bonds to make the fats solid at room temperature.


    To rub large food across medium to large grater holes or slits to make small pieces.


    To move flour or sugar through a sieve (sifter) to incorporate air and insure accurate measurement. Food History Note: “Weevily flour” was not thrown out—sifting was done to
    remove bugs as well as lumps from flour.


    To cook in liquid that is barely at the boiling point and small bubbles rise below the surface.


    To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid. Ex: “Skim” the milk after scalding.

    Slack dough:

    Dough that is too fluid due to underdevelopment or too much water/too little flour.


    also called “docking;” making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.

    Sour dough:

    Bread with a slightly sour tangy flavor created by using sour dough starter (levain)—a batter or dough that has colonies of sour dough yeasts and bacteria (microflora). 


    Scattering particles of sugar or toppings over a surface, like frosting, cake or bread.


     To make resistant to change in condition or position; set.


    No longer fresh; poor quality made by being kept too long or stored in the wrong environment.


    The chief item or most important items made, grown or sold in a particular place, region, country, etc.


    70 to 75% of flour is starch. During milling a small portion are damaged. Quality wheat and short extraction flour contain fine quality starch granules and protein important in
    mixing, dough conditioning water absorption, fermentation and quality crumb formation.


    70 to 75% of flour is starch. During milling a small portion are damaged. Quality wheat and short extraction flour contain fine quality starch granules and protein important in
    mixing, dough conditioning water absorption, fermentation and quality crumb formation.


    To cook in steam, with or without pressure, as with steam bread or Chinese dumplings.


    Using a spoon to mix ingredients with a circular or figure-eight motion. 


    To separate solid from liquid.


    A crystalline, water soluble sugar naturally occurring in sugar cane, sugar beets, and sorghum; widely used in baking, sucrose is sweeter than glucose and not as sweet as fructose.


    Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar for home baking is produced in greatest quantities from sugar cane and sugar beets
    Granulated sugar: Fine or extra-fine white sugar crystals. Often referred to as "white sugar" in home baking.
    Brown sugar: Sugar crystals contained in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color components.
    Dark and light brown sugars may be substituted according to individual preferences for product color or taste.
    Confectioners' sugar: Also called powdered sugar. See glossary listing.
    Raw sugar: About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not      considered fit for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA.
    Turbinado sugar: Raw sugar refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge under sanitary conditions. Surface molasses is removed in the washing process and is closer to refined sugar than raw.