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    Having the bad smell or taste of spoiled (oxidized) fats or oils; nuts may also be rancid; rancid fats are a carcinogen and should not be consumed.


    (a) The relation of one thing to another in size or amount—Ex: (A) crepe batter is 1 part flour to 1 part milk. (B) The quotient of one number divided by another–(Ex: “one out of 4 consumers prefers strawberry” so one divided by four is ¼, the fraction of the whole group strawberry lovers represent; or, 1 divided by 4 is 25%).

    Raw sugar:

    About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. 


    To restore a former condition by adding water. Dried, minced vegetables, such as onions or leeks, should be reconstituted before adding to baked goods.

    Reduced sodium:

    A food has reduced the sodium content by 25%; there is 25% less sodium per serving than the original food.

    Rest time:

    After kneading, punching or rounding, dough benefits from a brief (10 to 30 minutes) intermission in handling. The dough will be more easily rolled or shaped. Keep dough
    covered with bowl or plastic food wrap sprayed with pan spray while it rests so “skin” doesn’t form.


    1. Small dough piece (2.0-4.5 oz), smooth and rounded with dough skin side up, pinched seam at bottom 2. To use a rolling pin to roll out a dough piece from center out forming a flat dough piece of even thickness for cookie cutting, pie crust or other products.

    Room temperature:

    In baking, ingredients at room temperature may be 62° to 70° F.


    Shaping dough so that a smooth surface encases the dough, sealing it as it rests.

    Rye flour:

    Milled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier, and low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or medium for home baking. The light and medium rye flour have most of the bran removed. Dark rye flour is whole grain.