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    Utensil used to hold dough or batter—may be rectangular, flat or round; best surface for baking is heavy shiny or darkened aluminum for best crust color; glass baking pans require
    adjusted oven temperatures—reduce about 25° F.


    One of humans’ oldest bread forms, hundreds of types are shared cultures; batter may be thick or thin, and is baked on a very hot surface for breakfast, lunch, dinner or a snack.


    Storage space near the kitchen for food, pans, ingredients and equipment.

    Parchment paper:

    Sheets of grease and moisture resistant paper used in baking to line pans; replaces greasing or spraying pans. Products are shaped or distributed directly on the paper and are easily removed after baking. Great for making disposable pastry bags too.


    To remove the outer covering or skin of fruit or vegetables with a small knife or peeler.

    Pastry blender:

    A hand-held U-shaped tool with 5 or 6 sturdy parallel wires used to “cut” cold butter or fat into smaller pieces in a flour mixture without melting or smearing the butter or fat.

    Pastry filling:

    A savory or sweet mixture prepared to fill a pastry dough or crust.


    Rimless, lightweight board, may have a long handle; used to transfer proofed bread to hot baking stone in oven.


    A sweet or savory dish made with one or two crusts and filling (pudding, fruit, meat or vegetables).

    Piping bag:

    A cone or triangular shaped bad made from paper, cloth or plastic that is used to pipe semi-solid foods through the narrow opening of the point. Nossles are usually attached to the pipling bag to create desired shapes. Piping bags are most commonly used in baking to pipe frosting onto cupcakes or fillings into profiteroles, puffs or eclairs. 


    May refer to the honeycomb-like structure of white  pan bread.


    Partial (yeast) dough made of flour, water, yeast and sometimes salt given a quick mixing and allowed to ferment prior to mixing the full dough. Five traditional preferments
    are: poolish (equal weights flour and water); scrap dough (old dough–pate fermentee); biga (flour+50-60% water+1/2% instant yeast); sponge (flour, yeast, water); mixed
    starter (flour+water+small piece old dough; mimics sourdough).


    Heating the empty oven to the recommended temperature before placing the product to be baked in it.


    In bread baking, this term indicates the period of time a product is allowed to rise after it is shaped and placed on or in pans. Products are usually proofed until doubled in size,
    or when a finger, lightly placed on the side of the loaf, leaves an indentation. Products are “proofed” in a humid, draft-free, 95° F. to 100° F. place. (Avoid to warm an environment!) In homes, a barely damp, clean, non-terry cloth towel or plastic wrap sprayed with pan spray may be lightly placed over the product to prevent the dough from crusting (drying). Some ovens have a proofing feature.


    Comprised of amino acids, proteins are an essential nutrient group; in baking flour, “high protein” refers to the “strength” of the flour to produce gluten, comprised of two amino acids, glutenin and gliadin for bread and pasta products. Low protein flour will be used for soft, tender products (cakes, biscuits, cookies, pastry).


    To mash, process or sieve cooked fruit or vegetables to form a thick smooth liquid. Purees may be used to substitute for ¼ to of the oil or fat in some baked products.