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     Milk sugar; the sugar naturally occurring in milk.

    Lean dough:

     A dough prepared with little or no fat, sugar, or milk.


    Ingredients used in baked goods to lighten the texture, develop flavor, produce distinctive cell structure and increase volume. Leavening agents include heat and moisture (steam), beaten eggs or egg whites, baking soda, baking powder, cream of tartar, and yeast. Historical terms for leavening: Latin = levre = to raise; also called “lifter.”


    Straight–edged knife or spatula used to scrape across a dry measuring cup in which flour or other dry ingredient is heaped.

    Liquid measure:

    A clear, hard, plastic or glass cup with a lip for pouring. The cup is usually a pint or quart measuring tool marked with lines to measure liquid ingredients in home baking. It will have lines to mark ounces, milliliters, and 1/8, ¼, 1/3, ½, 2/3, ¾ and 1 cup or more. Liquid ingredients should be measured in this cup, with the cup placed on a flat surface for accuracy in home baking. 


     A portion of bread dough baked in one piece or form.