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    Fermentation:

    A process in bread-baking in which yeast enzymes in a dough mixture convert sugars (glucose, fructose and maltose) to bud and grow, creating carbon dioxide that expands the dough and alcohol as a by-product.
    

     

    FIFO:

    Efficient food storage for less waste; means “First In, First Out,” ensuring oldest products are used first.
    

     

    Flaky:

    Distinct layers of pastry or biscuit formed by using low protein flour, fat, and not too much mixing.
    

     

    Flatbread:

    Breads that are shaped and baked in thin, flat shapes such as pita, naan, focaccia, tortilla, chapati.
    

     

    Flatbread:

    Breads that are shaped and baked in thin, flat shapes such as pita, naan, focaccia, tortilla, chapati.
    

     

    Flour:

    (n.) The finely ground and sifted meal of any of various edible grains. Flour is a major ingredient in most baked goods with wheat flour making up 75 to 100% of the flour in baked goods to produce the desired structure, flavor and volume. 
    
    Other flours with less or no gluten, are also used and are made from grains (corn, barley, rye, oats, sorghum, millet, rice, triticale),
    seeds (amaranth, teff, quinoa, buckwheat, spelt) and legumes or vegetables (soy, lentils, peas, potatoes) and used at levels of 2% to 25%, based on the total wheat flour weight (Bakers %). View flour milling, Kids Zone, www.namamillers.org
    
    (v.) To lightly dust a surface or dough with flour.
    

     

    Foam:

    1. Moist mixture of yeast, water and possibly a pinch of
    sugar that is actively growing and expanding.
     2. Beaten egg whites beginning to hold air, before peaks are forming.
    

     

    Focaccia:

    Italian bakers' snack, from Latin term "focus" or hearth. The focaccia was originally baked on a stone hearth.
    

     

    Fold:

    To gently combine two or more ingredients or a delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by cutting vertically through the mixture and turning it over by sliding the mixing tool across the bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.
    

     

    Freezer burn:

    Dehydration or drying that occurs on the surface of a frozen product if it is improperly wrapped. The food is safe to eat but poorer quality. To prevent freezer burn, the package must be free of air and sealed airtight.
    

     

    Fructose:

    Naturally occurring, highly sweet fruit sugar or levulose; also found in honey; sweeter than sucrose.
    

     

    Fry:

    To cook in heated fat; for doughnuts, fry bread, or funnel cakes, heat oil (2-3” deep) to 375˚ F., turn products only once; drain well. To reduce fat absorption, substitute 5% of the flour weight with defatted soy flour (1 oz. soy flour + 15 oz. wheat flour = 1 lb. flour OR 1 tablespoon per cup).