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    Danger zone:

    The temperature at which perishable food should not be held or left out of refrigeration for any longer than 2 hours—The Danger Zone for food safety is 40° F. to 140° F.-– perishable foods held in this “zone” for over 2 hours should not be eaten.

    Dark chocolate:

    is also bittersweet, semi-sweet, and sweet dark chocolate; all contain cacao beans, sugar, an emulsifier such as soy lecithin to preserve texture, and flavorings such as vanilla but do not contain milk solids. They are distinguished by the amount of cocoa powder: 30% (sweet dark) to 70%, 75%, or even above 80%, for extremely dark bars

    Demera sugar:

    A light brown sugar with large golden crystals which is slightly sticky from adhering molasses. It is popular in England for tea, coffee, or to top hot cereals.


    Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example: stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).


    Equally portioning a dough or batter before shaping or panning prior to baking.


    A baking technique in which regularly spaced holes are poked all over the surface of a dough to promote a crisp baked surface (crackers, pet treats, pie shells, all may be docked before baking).


    Docking: Slashing or making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.


    To place small dabs or pieces of butter or batter over the surface of a food, such as with a pie, just before the top crust is added and baking begins.


    A mixture of flour and liquids, and may have other ingredients, that is thick enough to be handled, kneaded or shaped.

    Dough scraper, dough or bench knife:

    A flat, heavy metal blade (about 3 X 5-inches) with straight sides, sharp corners and a handle on top edge for moving, kneading, clean-cutting dough, incising, or even cleaning work surfaces.


    To remove liquid from a food product.


    To pour a light amount, from a spoon, over food.


    Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example: stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).


    To deposit even portions of dough on a baking sheet using spoon or batter dispenser.

    Dry ingredients:

    Refers to the ingredients in a recipe, such as flours, sugar, leavening, salt, baking cocoa, spices, or herbs, that may be blended before adding to another mixture in the recipe. 

    Dry measuring cups:

    Straight-sided, graduated sizes of cups with handles attached at the top lip. The common cup sizes are 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1 and 2 cup, and are often nested for ease in storage. They are used to measure a standard amount of dry ingredients, such as flour, sugar, cornmeal, or brown sugar, for home baking recipes. The dry ingredients are spooned into the cup and leveled off with a straight-edged utensil.


    To lightly sprinkle the surface of a food or dough with sugar, flour or crumbs. Also to sprinkle the surface used for rolling out or shaping dough.