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            Carbon dioxide; the gas released from leavening reactions and fermentation that creates bubbles and space in a batter or dough.


                (kuh-KOW) Tropical evergreen tree cultivated for its seed pods from which cocoa powder and cocoa butter are produced.


    When yeast loaves are under-proofed and the interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough, sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the appearance of a “cap.”


    To heat sugar until brown and a characteristic flavor develops.

    Chemical leavening:

    The reaction of a leavening base (such as baking soda) with a leavening acid (such as sodium aluminum sulfate) in the presence of moisture and heat to produce carbon dioxide gas. 


     Make mixture or cooking bowl cold by placing in refrigerator or in ice.


    From the Aztec word xocolatl meaning bitter water. A food derived from the cacao bean being fermented, dried, roasted, ground and processed into cocoa powder and a liquor
    used to make a variety of chocolate products: Bittersweet, dark, couverture, milk, semisweet, white, unsweetened.


    To make a substance clear or pure. 

    Cocoa Butter:

     The portion of fat in the cacao bean. 

    Cocoa Powder:

    Unsweetened cocoa powder made from cacao beans that are fermented, dried, roasted, and cracked. The nibs (small pieces) are ground to extract about 75 percent of
    the cocoa butter – a thick paste which is called chocolate liquor. This is dried and ground to powder. 


     To mix or blend two or more ingredients together.

    Confectioner's or Powdered sugar:

    A granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder. A small amount (about 3 percent) of cornstarch is added to prevent clumping.

    Convection Oven:

    A gas or electric oven equipped with a fan that continually circulates the hot oven air around the product. Circulating hot air allows products to bake on several racks at one time. Oven temperature can usually be reduced by 25°F and preheating may be unnecessary.


    A flour-based, sweet, hand-held small cake (from the Dutch word "koekje," meaning "little cake").

    Cookie Sheet:

    A flat, rectangular baking pan made of steel or aluminum that is rigid. Sizes range from 10 x 8 inches to 20 x 15 inches. A cookie sheet is designed with two, non-edged sides so cookies can slide off either side for easier removal.


    To let food stand until it no longer feels warm to the touch. Baked goods are cooled on wire racks to avoid soggybottom crusts; cool baked goods before wrapping and storing.

    Cooling Rack:

    A rectangular grid of thick wire with “feet” that raise it above the countertop. They are used to cool cakes, cookies, and other baked goods when they come out of the oven.
    Products are cooled while in their pan for a short time and after the product is removed from the pan prior to storing or freezing. Yeast breads are removed from the pans and onto the rack as soon as they come out of the oven to prevent a soggy crust.


     Remove the seeded, inner portion of a fruit.

    Corn Flour:

    Flour milled from whole corn, it has the flavor of corn and is excellent in cornbread, muffins, waffles, and blended with cornmeal. Sometimes refers to corn starch.


    Dry de-germinated or whole grain corn kernels (yellow, white or blue varieties are grown) that have been ground into fine, medium or coarse meal.

    Corn starch:

    The fine, powdery flour obtained from the endosperm of corn used as a thickener for pie fillings and puddings; in combination with wheat flour in cakes, cookies, pastries, it produces a fine-textured product. Cornstarch may be referred to as cornflour in some recipe

    Courverture chocolate:

    Professional quality glossy coating chocolate.


    Also creaming. To work (with spoon or mixer) one or more foods until soft and creamy.

    Cream of Tartar:

    An acidic salt—potassium hydrogen tartrate (also referred to as tartaric acid); stabilizes beaten egg whites and leavens some baked goods.


    The French word for pancake; paper-thin, flexible egg-rich pancakes used to wrap or fold around sweet or savory ingredients as a first or main course.


    The interior of baked goods—not the crust; interior texture formed by air cell pockets trapped inside a webbing of starch and protein gelatinized by baking.


     To pulverize, as with herbs and spices used in baking.


    The caramelized crisp or chewy outer layer of a baked product that covers the crumb or more tender inside.


    The caramelized crisp or chewy outer layer of a baked product that covers the crumb or more tender inside.