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    Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven.

    Baking Mix:

    A combination of pre-measured baking dry ingredients (Ex: flours, meal, leavening, sugars, salt, spices).

    Baking Pan:

    Baking pan Available in a variety of shapes and sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans, which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test kitchens use midgauge aluminum pans to formulate standards for baking time, temperature, and even baking/browning.

    Baking Powder:

    A leavening agent containing both baking soda and one or two acids - citric or tartaric. It reacts without acid from the other ingredients when wet and when it becomes hot. The baking powder used at home is "double-acting" because it has two types of acid - one reacts when liquids are added in the bowl and the other reacts when it becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is the gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes a light product in the end. Test for strength by mixing one teaspoon baking powder with 1/4 cup very hot water. Mixture should bubble furiously.

    Baking Sheet:

    A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually has one or more edges that is turned up for ease in removing from the oven. Types include shiny, heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in most test kitchens for even baking and browning. Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce especially crisp exterior crusts desired for specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets are two sheets of aluminum with air space between, and are especially good for soft cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls.

    Baking Soda:

    A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium carbonate (purified form of mineral trona) is mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form sodium bicarbonate.
    Na2CO3 	+ 	CO2 	+ 	H20 	+ 	NaHCO3
    carbonate 	  	carbon
    dioxide 	  	water 	  	sodium
    Baking soda is the source of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It
    neutralizes acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked
    goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking powder

    Barbados Sugar:

    Also known as muscovado sugar. A British specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and has a strong molasses flavor. 


    A long loaf (thicker and stubbier than a baguette).

    Barley Flour:

    A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley. It imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads. 


    One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies.


    Thin mixture of flour and water that can be poured or spooned into pan or on a griddle.


    Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer. 


     The counter or surface bakers use to work with dough.


     To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid.


    A small tender, flaky quick bread, usually leavened with baking powder or using self-rising flour and is usually a savory (not sweet) hot bread served with meals.


    To mix two or more ingredients together with a spoon, whisk, electric mixer, blender, or processor. 


    Bread: In bread baking, bloom refers to the attractive, brown color of the crust of a well-baked loaf of bread. 


    To cook in liquid that is heated until bubbles rise to the surface and break. Bubbles form throughout the mixture. Temperature: 212° F or 100° C.

    Boule (Miche):

    Round loaf; taut skin stretched perfectly over a dome of bread dough, sealed on the bottom.


    Baked foods produced from dough made of flour, water, salt and other optional ingredients, and leavened by yeast or other leavening agents.


     To weave together three or more long pieces of dough.

    Bread scoring:

    1. Evaluation of finished baked product to determine quality. 2. Slashing the surface (top) of loaves to allow for expansion as the loaf is baked.

    Brown sugar:

    Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color.  May be produced by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form, then centrifuging the crystals until dry.


    A dense, chewy, cake-like cookie that is generally chocolate-flavored and colored (hence the name) and cut in bar shapes to serve.

    Buckwheat flour:

    A gluten-free flour made by grinding hulled buckwheat seeds. It is not a relative of wheat. Originating in Russia, buckwheat has a distinctive flavor and is used in pancakes and some baked goods, such as multi-grain breads. Russian blini are made with buckwheat flour. Groats and kasha also are produced from buckwheat. 


    Butter is produced by churning cream into a semi-solid form. By U.S. standard definition, it is 80 percent milk fat, with the remaining 20 percent consisting of water and milk solids. Butter for baking may be salted or unsalted and is valued by most bakers for its irreplaceable flavor and ability to create flaky layers, crispness, tenderness, carry flavors, and provide golden-brown color.